性能环境之docker操作指南2(全网最全)

声明:原创作者独家授权,转载需要保留本公众号信息。

公众号:7DGroup

docker [OPTIONS] command

  1. Usage: docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND [arg...]    
  2.       docker daemon [ --help | ... ]    
  3.       docker [ -h | --help | -v | --version ]    
  4. A self-sufficient runtime for containers.    
  5. Options:    
  6.   --config=~/.docker              Location of client config files    
  7.  -D, --debug=false               Enable debug mode    
  8.  -H, --host=[]                   Daemon socket(s) to connect to    
  9.  -h, --help=false                Print usage    
  10.  -l, --log-level=info            Set the logging level    
  11.  --tls=false                     Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify    
  12.  --tlscacert=~/.docker/ca.pem    Trust certs signed only by this CA    
  13.  --tlscert=~/.docker/cert.pem    Path to TLS certificate file    
  14.  --tlskey=~/.docker/key.pem      Path to TLS key file    
  15.  --tlsverify=false               Use TLS and verify the remote    
  16.  -v, --version=false             Print version information and quit

attach

Attach to a running container
将终端依附到容器上

  1. Usage:  docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER    
  2. Attach to a running container    
  3.  --help=false        Print usage    
  4.  --no-stdin=false    Do not attach STDIN    
  5.  --sig-proxy=true    Proxy all received signals to the process

build

  1. Usage:  docker build [OPTIONS] PATH | URL | -    
  2. Build an image from a Dockerfile    
  3.  --build-arg=[]                  Set build-time variables    
  4.  --cpu-shares=0                  CPU shares (relative weight)    
  5.  --cgroup-parent=                Optional parent cgroup for the container    
  6.  --cpu-period=0                  Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period    
  7.  --cpu-quota=0                   Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota    
  8.  --cpuset-cpus=                  CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)    
  9.  --cpuset-mems=                  MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)    
  10.  --disable-content-trust=true    Skip image verification    
  11.  -f, --file=                     Name of the Dockerfile (Default is 'PATH/Dockerfile')    
  12.  --force-rm=false                Always remove intermediate containers    
  13.  --help=false                    Print usage    
  14.  -m, --memory=                   Memory limit    
  15.  --memory-swap=                  Total memory (memory + swap), '-1' to disable swap    
  16.  --no-cache=false                Do not use cache when building the image    
  17.  --pull=false                    Always attempt to pull a newer version of the image    
  18.  -q, --quiet=false               Suppress the verbose output generated by the containers    
  19.  --rm=true                       Remove intermediate containers after a successful build    
  20.  -t, --tag=                      Repository name (and optionally a tag) for the image    
  21.  --ulimit=[]                     Ulimit options

通过Dockerfile创建镜像。具体见以后的使用中。

commit

  1. Usage:  docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]    
  2. Create a new image from a container's changes    
  3.  -a, --author=       Author (e.g., "John Hannibal Smith <hannibal@a-team.com>")    
  4.  -c, --change=[]     Apply Dockerfile instruction to the created image    
  5.  --help=false        Print usage    
  6.  -m, --message=      Commit message    
  7.  -p, --pause=true    Pause container during commit

通过容器创建本地镜像.
可自定义tag,如docker commit dc806ee0bf86 web:v1
不指定tag的情况下默认tag为latest

  1. root@ubuntu:~# docker commit dc806ee0bf86 test    
  2. 1e488386876e14ef3e930a98ec0bb49de1890963e2e979069f9f4d87f89f4959  

cp

  1. Usage:  docker cp [OPTIONS] CONTAINER:PATH LOCALPATH|-    
  2.        docker cp [OPTIONS] LOCALPATH|- CONTAINER:PATH    
  3. Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem    
  4. Use '-' as the source to read a tar archive from stdin and extract it to a directory destination in a container.    
  5. Use '-' as the destination to stream a tar archive of a container source to stdout.

容器和宿主机之间相互copy文件
1.将容器:/data/a.txt复制到本地当前目录

  1. $ docker cp 87cb69be18bb:/data/a.txt ./    

2.将本地文件复制到容器:/data/backup目录下

  1. $ docker cp helpdocker.tgz 87cb69be18bb:/data/backup/    

3.将本地目录复制到容器:/data/backup目录下

  1. $ docker cp data 87cb69be18bb:/data/backup

create

  1. Usage:  docker create [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]    
  2. Create a new container    
  3.  -a, --attach=[]                 Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR    
  4.  --add-host=[]                   Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)    
  5.  --blkio-weight=0                Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000    
  6.  --cpu-shares=0                  CPU shares (relative weight)    
  7.  --cap-add=[]                    Add Linux capabilities    
  8.  --cap-drop=[]                   Drop Linux capabilities    
  9.  --cgroup-parent=                Optional parent cgroup for the container    
  10.  --cidfile=                      Write the container ID to the file    
  11.  --cpu-period=0                  Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period    
  12.  --cpu-quota=0                   Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota    
  13.  --cpuset-cpus=                  CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)    
  14.  --cpuset-mems=                  MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)    
  15.  --device=[]                     Add a host device to the container    
  16.  --disable-content-trust=true    Skip image verification    
  17.  --dns=[]                        Set custom DNS servers    
  18.  --dns-opt=[]                    Set DNS options    
  19.  --dns-search=[]                 Set custom DNS search domains    
  20.  -e, --env=[]                    Set environment variables    
  21.  --entrypoint=                   Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image    
  22.  --env-file=[]                   Read in a file of environment variables    
  23.  --expose=[]                     Expose a port or a range of ports    
  24.  --group-add=[]                  Add additional groups to join    
  25.  -h, --hostname=                 Container host name    
  26.  --help=false                    Print usage    
  27.  -i, --interactive=false         Keep STDIN open even if not attached    
  28.  --ipc=                          IPC namespace to use    
  29.  --kernel-memory=                Kernel memory limit    
  30.  -l, --label=[]                  Set meta data on a container    
  31.  --label-file=[]                 Read in a line delimited file of labels    
  32.  --link=[]                       Add link to another container    
  33.  --log-driver=                   Logging driver for container    
  34.  --log-opt=[]                    Log driver options    
  35.  --lxc-conf=[]                   Add custom lxc options    
  36.  -m, --memory=                   Memory limit    
  37.  --mac-address=                  Container MAC address (e.g. 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)    
  38.  --memory-reservation=           Memory soft limit    
  39.  --memory-swap=                  Total memory (memory + swap), '-1' to disable swap    
  40.  --memory-swappiness=-1          Tuning container memory swappiness (0 to 100)    
  41.  --name=                         Assign a name to the container    
  42.  --net=default                   Set the Network for the container    
  43.  --oom-kill-disable=false        Disable OOM Killer    
  44.  -P, --publish-all=false         Publish all exposed ports to random ports    
  45.  -p, --publish=[]                Publish a container's port(s) to the host    
  46.  --pid=                          PID namespace to use    
  47.  --privileged=false              Give extended privileges to this container    
  48.  --read-only=false               Mount the container's root filesystem as read only    
  49.  --restart=no                    Restart policy to apply when a container exits    
  50.  --security-opt=[]               Security Options    
  51.  --stop-signal=SIGTERM           Signal to stop a container, SIGTERM by default    
  52.  -t, --tty=false                 Allocate a pseudo-TTY    
  53.  -u, --user=                     Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])    
  54.  --ulimit=[]                     Ulimit options    
  55.  --uts=                          UTS namespace to use    
  56.  -v, --volume=[]                 Bind mount a volume    
  57.  --volume-driver=                Optional volume driver for the container    
  58.  --volumes-from=[]               Mount volumes from the specified container(s)    
  59.  -w, --workdir=                  Working directory inside the container

创建但不启动一个容器.具体参数同docker run.

diff

  1. Usage:  docker diff [OPTIONS] CONTAINER    
  2. Inspect changes on a container's filesystem    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage

查看容器内发生变化的文件。

  1. $ docker diff 87cb69be18bb
  2. A /data    
  3. A /data/a.txt    
  4. A /data/b    
  5. A /data/backup    
  6. A /data/backup/data    
  7. A /data/backup/helpdocker.tgz    
  8. C /root    
  9. A /root/.bash_history

events

  1. Usage:  docker events [OPTIONS]    
  2. Get real time events from the server    
  3.  -f, --filter=[]    Filter output based on conditions provided    
  4.  --help=false       Print usage    
  5.  --since=           Show all events created since timestamp    
  6.  --until=           Stream events until this timestamp  

实时输出docker服务器端的事件,包括容器的创建、启动、关闭等。

  1. $ docker events
  2. 2016-08-26T10:42:08.001137030+08:00 87cb69be18bbe74ea9e14b16228ccc3347dcffb3e074fa303ca32deb46417105: (from ubuntu:14.04) die

exec

  1. Usage:  docker exec [OPTIONS] CONTAINER COMMAND [ARG...]    
  2. Run a command in a running container    
  3.  -d, --detach=false         Detached mode: run command in the background    
  4.  --help=false               Print usage    
  5.  -i, --interactive=false    Keep STDIN open even if not attached    
  6.  --privileged=false         Give extended privileges to the command    
  7.  -t, --tty=false            Allocate a pseudo-TTY    
  8.  -u, --user=                Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])  

通过宿主机在正在运行的容器上执行命令。
通过宿主机在容器上创建文件

  1. $ docker exec 87cb69be18bb touch /root/abc.txt    

可通过exec命令申请一个终端,执行shell:

  1. $ docker exec -it 87cb69be18bb /bin/bash
  2. root@87cb69be18bb:/# ls    
  3. abc  bin  boot  data  dev  etc  home  ifconfig  lib  lib64  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var

export

  1. Usage:  docker export [OPTIONS] CONTAINER    
  2. Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    
  4.  -o, --output=      Write to a file, instead of STDOUT

将容器的文件系统打包成tar文件
两种方式:

  1. $ docker export 87cb69be18bb > web.tar    
  2. $ docker export -o web.tar 87cb69be18bb    

history

  1. Usage:  docker history [OPTIONS] IMAGE    
  2. Show the history of an image    
  3.  -H, --human=true     Print sizes and dates in human readable format    
  4.  --help=false         Print usage    
  5.  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output    
  6.  -q, --quiet=false    Only show numeric IDs      

显示一个镜像的历史

  1. $ docker history ubuntu:14.04    
  2. IMAGE       CREATED                           CREATED BY         SIZE    COMMENT    
  3. d9560c05d6bd   2 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) CMD ["/bin/bash"]             0 B                      
  4. 001bed837092   2 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c sed -i 's/^#\s*\(deb.*universe\)$/   1.895 kB                
  5. 92b3f03280cc    2 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*          0 B                      
  6. 24e6f8fb4abf     2 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c set -xe   && echo '#!/bin/sh' > /u   194.6 kB                
  7. 50ed19911a3e    2 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) ADD file:4f5a660d3f5141588d   187.8 MB      

images

  1. Usage:  docker images [OPTIONS] [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]    
  2. List images    
  3.  -a, --all=false      Show all images (default hides intermediate images)    
  4.  --digests=false      Show digests    
  5.  -f, --filter=[]      Filter output based on conditions provided    
  6.  --help=false         Print usage    
  7.  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output    
  8.  -q, --quiet=false    Only show numeric IDs  

显示所有的镜像.

import

  1. Usage:  docker import [OPTIONS] file|URL|- [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]    
  2. Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image    
  3.  -c, --change=[]    Apply Dockerfile instruction to the created image    
  4.  --help=false       Print usage    
  5.  -m, --message=     Set commit message for imported image

根据export出的tar文件创建一个镜像,和export相结合使用,这种方式容器的层结构将会丢失。

info

  1. Usage:  docker info [OPTIONS]    
  2. Display system-wide information    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    

查看docker的全局信息.

  1. # docker info
  2. Containers: 1    
  3. Images: 25    
  4. Server Version: 1.9.1    
  5. Storage Driver: aufs    
  6. Root Dir: /var/lib/docker/aufs    
  7. Backing Filesystem: extfs    
  8. Dirs: 27    
  9. Dirperm1 Supported: false    
  10. Execution Driver: native-0.2    
  11. Logging Driver: json-file    
  12. Kernel Version: 3.13.0-32-generic    
  13. Operating System: Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS    
  14. CPUs: 1    
  15. Total Memory: 986.8 MiB    
  16. Name: ubuntu    
  17. ID: ALLP:KE4W:ITY7:WUL6:QKUG:4CGB:R6IA:2UXG:227D:K6BF:EDLL:27TX    
  18. WARNING: No swap limit support

inspect

  1. Usage:  docker inspect [OPTIONS] CONTAINER|IMAGE [CONTAINER|IMAGE...]    
  2. Return low-level information on a container or image    
  3.  -f, --format=       Format the output using the given go template    
  4.  --help=false        Print usage    
  5.  -s, --size=false    Display total file sizes if the type is container    
  6.  --type=             Return JSON for specified type, (e.g image or container)

用于查看容器的所有配置信息,包含容器名、环境变量、运行命令、主机配置、网络配置和数据卷配置等。

  1. $ docker inspect nextcloud
  2. [
  3.    {
  4.        "Id": "4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca",
  5.        "Created": "2018-08-10T03:28:36.570570242Z",
  6.        "Path": "/bin/bash",
  7.        "Args": [],
  8.        "State": {
  9.            "Status": "running",
  10.            "Running": true,
  11.            "Paused": false,
  12.            "Restarting": false,
  13.            "OOMKilled": false,
  14.            "Dead": false,
  15.            "Pid": 19066,
  16.            "ExitCode": 0,
  17.            "Error": "",
  18.            "StartedAt": "2018-08-15T01:51:36.80771433Z",
  19.            "FinishedAt": "2018-08-15T01:51:36.267209678Z"
  20.        },
  21.        "Image": "sha256:c3342f6abac82e375ec5c5e64be74afee47af31e39ba480a55fd912aa45a722b",
  22.        "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca/resolv.conf",
  23.        "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca/hostname",
  24.        "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca/hosts",
  25.        "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca/4f798fc8f1b5bcde38aa3702a02e06d996ae4608e8c369237754ae50e950f7ca-json.log",
  26.        "Name": "/nextcloud",
  27.        "RestartCount": 2,
  28.        "Driver": "overlay2",
  29.        "Platform": "linux",
  30.        "MountLabel": "",
  31.        "ProcessLabel": "",
  32.        "AppArmorProfile": "docker-default",
  33.        "ExecIDs": null,        

kill

  1. Usage:  docker kill [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Kill a running container    
  3.  --help=false         Print usage    
  4.  -s, --signal=KILL    Signal to send to the container      

强制终止容器.
关于stop和kill的区别:
docker stop命令给容器中的进程发送SIGTERM信号,默认行为是会导致容器退出,当然,容器内程序可以捕获该信号并自行处理,例如可以选择忽略。而dockerkill则是给容器的进程发送SIGKILL信号,该信号将会使容器必然退出。

load

  1. Usage:  docker load [OPTIONS]    
  2. Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    
  4.  -i, --input=       Read from a tar archive file, instead of STDIN    

与下面的save命令相对应,将下面sava命令打包的镜像通过load命令导入。

login

  1. Usage:  docker login [OPTIONS] [SERVER]    
  2. Register or log in to a Docker registry.    
  3. If no server is specified "https://index.docker.io/v1/" is the default.    
  4.  -e, --email=       Email    
  5.  --help=false       Print usage    
  6.  -p, --password=    Password    
  7.  -u, --username=    Username  

登录到自己的Docker register,需有Docker Hub的注册账号,或者自行搭建的私有仓库。

logout

  1. Usage:  docker logout [OPTIONS] [SERVER]    
  2. Log out from a Docker registry.    
  3. If no server is specified "https://index.docker.io/v1/" is the default.    
  4.  --help=false       Print usage  

从Docker register退出登录。

logs

  1. Fetch the logs of a container    
  2.  -f, --follow=false        Follow log output    
  3.  --help=false              Print usage    
  4.  --since=                  Show logs since timestamp    
  5.  -t, --timestamps=false    Show timestamps    
  6.  --tail=all                Number of lines to show from the end of the logs    

用于查看容器的日志,它将输入(出)到容器标准输入(出)的数据,作为日志输出到docker logs命令的终端上。常用于后台型容器。
87cb69be18bb是一个数据流为输入、输出和错误和容器,如下命令则会打印该容器的所有交互日志。

  1. # docker logs 87cb69be18bb    

来个综合点的,查询容器最新的3条日志并打上时间戳:

  1. # docker logs -f -t --tail=3 nextcloud  
  2. 2018-08-15T01:51:23.500951699Z root@nextcloud:/#
  3. 2018-08-15T01:51:36.154541783Z root@nextcloud:/# exit
  4. 2018-08-15T01:51:36.154917668Z exit

network

  1. Usage:  docker network [OPTIONS] COMMAND [OPTIONS]    
  2. Commands:    
  3.  create                   Create a network    
  4.  connect                  Connect container to a network    
  5.  disconnect               Disconnect container from a network    
  6.  inspect                  Display detailed network information    
  7.  ls                       List all networks    
  8.  rm                       Remove a network    

创建网络

  1. Usage:  docker network create [OPTIONS] NETWORK-NAME    
  2. Creates a new network with a name specified by the user    
  3.  --aux-address=map[]      auxiliary ipv4 or ipv6 addresses used by Network driver    
  4.  -d, --driver=bridge      Driver to manage the Network    
  5.  --gateway=[]             ipv4 or ipv6 Gateway for the master subnet    
  6.  --help=false             Print usage    
  7.  --ip-range=[]            allocate container ip from a sub-range    
  8.  --ipam-driver=default    IP Address Management Driver    
  9.  -o, --opt=map[]          set driver specific options    
  10.  --subnet=[]              subnet in CIDR format that represents a network segment  

自定义网络,可指定网段、网关等参数。
创建一个my_network的网络,–ip-range:指定子网段,–subnet:指定一个网段

  1. $ docker network create -d bridge --ip-range=192.168.1.0/24 --subnet=192.168.1.0/24 my_network

查看网络

  1. Usage:  docker network inspect [OPTIONS] NETWORK [NETWORK...]    
  2. Displays detailed information on a network    
  1. $ docker network inspect my_network
  2. [    
  3.    {    
  4.        "Name": "my_network",    
  5.        "Id": "414e1dd5d71ea709be885be5c283ed8080c8ca22e9baad0dc242865dd39164fd",    
  6.        "Scope": "local",    
  7.        "Driver": "bridge",    
  8.        "IPAM": {    
  9.            "Driver": "default",    
  10.            "Config": [    
  11.                {    
  12.                    "Subnet": "192.168.1.0/24",    
  13.                    "IPRange": "192.168.1.0/24"    
  14.                }    
  15.            ]    
  16.        },    
  17.        "Containers": {},    
  18.        "Options": {}    
  19.    }    
  20. ]

列出网络

  1. Usage:  docker network ls [OPTIONS]    
  2. Lists networks    
  3.  --no-trunc=false     Do not truncate the output    
  4.  -q, --quiet=false    Only display numeric IDs    
  1. $ docker network ls
  2. NETWORK ID          NAME                DRIVER    
  3. 90b8ebd11e4f        bridge              bridge                  
  4. 77dd4f913ba1        none                null                    
  5. 65dfd6ebddab        host                host                    
  6. 414e1dd5d71e        my_network          bridge

bridge为默认的网络,172.17.0.0/16网段
my_network 为自定义的网格

删除网络

  1. Usage:  docker network rm [OPTIONS] NETWORK    
  2. Deletes a network  
  1. $ docker network rm my_network1    

连接网络

  1. Usage:  docker network connect [OPTIONS] NETWORK CONTAINER    
  2. Connects a container to a network  

将容器连接到指定的网络

1.创建一个容器,不指定网络,默认会用bridge网络。

  1. $ #docker run -it --name=web ubuntu:14.04 /bin/bash    

会看到默认有eth0:172.17.0.0/16段

  1. root@d35ef0bda3fb:/# ifconfig    
  2. eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 02:42:ac:11:00:02      
  3.          inet addr:172.17.0.2  Bcast:0.0.0.0  Mask:255.255.0.0    
  4.          inet6 addr: fe80::42:acff:fe11:2/64 Scope:Link    
  5.          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1    
  6.          RX packets:5 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0    
  7.          TX packets:6 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0    
  8.          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0      
  9.          RX bytes:418 (418.0 B)  TX bytes:508 (508.0 B)    

2.将该容器连接到my_network网络
连接到的容器必须是running状态。

  1. $ docker network connect my_network web    

3.查看容器网络状态
会看到多出一个eth1:192.168.1.0/24网段

  1. root@d35ef0bda3fb:/# ifconfig    
  2. eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 02:42:ac:11:00:02      
  3.          inet addr:172.17.0.2  Bcast:0.0.0.0  Mask:255.255.0.0    
  4.          inet6 addr: fe80::42:acff:fe11:2/64 Scope:Link    
  5.          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1    
  6.          RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0    
  7.          TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0    
  8.          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0      
  9.          RX bytes:648 (648.0 B)  TX bytes:648 (648.0 B)    
  10. eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 02:42:c0:a8:01:02      
  11.          inet addr:192.168.1.2  Bcast:0.0.0.0  Mask:255.255.255.0    
  12.          inet6 addr: fe80::42:c0ff:fea8:102/64 Scope:Link    
  13.          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1    
  14.          RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0    
  15.          TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0    
  16.          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0      
  17.          RX bytes:648 (648.0 B)  TX bytes:648 (648.0 B)    

断开网络

  1. Usage:  docker network disconnect [OPTIONS] NETWORK CONTAINER    
  2. Disconnects container from a network    

将容器与一个网络断开

  1. # docker network disconnect my_network web    

断开后该容器不在拥有该网络的地址。

pause

  1. Usage:  docker pause [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Pause all processes within a container    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    

暂停容器内的所有进程。
此时,通过docker stats可以观察到此时的资源使用情况是固定不变的,通过docker logs -f也观察不到日志的进一步输出。

  1. $ docker pause 87cb69be18bb    

容器的状态变为:Up About an hour (Paused)
docker unpause 重新启动一个容器。

port

  1. Usage:  docker port [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [PRIVATE_PORT[/PROTO]]    
  2. List port mappings or a specific mapping for the CONTAINER    

输出容器端口与宿主机端口的映射情况

  1. # docker port blog    
  2. 80/tcp -> 0.0.0.0:80    

容器blog的内部端口80映射到宿主机的80端口,这样可通过宿主机的80端口查看容器blog提供的服务

ps

  1. Usage:  docker ps [OPTIONS]    
  2. List containers    
  3.  -a, --all=false       Show all containers (default shows just running)    
  4.  --before=             Show only container created before Id or Name    
  5.  -f, --filter=[]       Filter output based on conditions provided    
  6.  --format=             Pretty-print containers using a Go template    
  7.  --help=false          Print usage    
  8.  -l, --latest=false    Show the latest created container, include non-running    
  9.  -n=-1                 Show n last created containers, include non-running    
  10.  --no-trunc=false      Don't truncate output    
  11.  -q, --quiet=false     Only display numeric IDs    
  12.  -s, --size=false      Display total file sizes    
  13.  --since=              Show created since Id or Name, include non-running      

列出所有容器,其中docker ps用于查看正在运行的容器,ps -a则用于查看所有容器。

pull

  1. Usage:  docker pull [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG|@DIGEST]    
  2. Pull an image or a repository from a registry    
  3.  -a, --all-tags=false            Download all tagged images in the repository    
  4.  --disable-content-trust=true    Skip image verification    
  5.  --help=false                    Print usage

从registry中拉取镜像。

push

  1. Usage:  docker push [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG]    
  2. Push an image or a repository to a registry    
  3.  --disable-content-trust=true    Skip image signing    
  4.  --help=false                    Print usage    

本地的镜像上传到registry中

rename

  1. Usage:  docker rename [OPTIONS] OLD_NAME NEW_NAME    
  2. Rename a container    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    

更改容器的名字.
将容器tender_lichterman更名为web1.

  1. # docker rename tender_lichterman web1    

restart

  1. Usage:  docker restart [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Restart a container    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    
  4.  -t, --time=10      Seconds to wait for stop before killing the container

重启一个容器。

rm

  1. Usage:  docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Remove one or more containers    
  3.  -f, --force=false      Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)    
  4.  --help=false           Print usage    
  5.  -l, --link=false       Remove the specified link    
  6.  -v, --volumes=false    Remove the volumes associated with the container

删除容器。
不可以删除一个运行中的容器,必须先用docker stop或docker kill使其停止。
当然可以强制删除,必须加-f参数。
如果要一次性删除所有容器,可使用 docker rm -f $(docker ps -a -q),其中,-q指的是只列出容器的ID。

rmi

  1. Usage:  docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]    
  2. Remove one or more images    
  3.  -f, --force=false    Force removal of the image    
  4.  --help=false         Print usage    
  5.  --no-prune=false     Do not delete untagged parents

删除一个或多个镜像。

save

  1. Usage:  docker save [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]    
  2. Save an image(s) to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    
  4.  -o, --output=      Write to a file, instead of STDOUT

将镜像打包,与上面的load命令相对应.
两种方式:

  1. # docker save webserver >webserver.tar    
  2. # docker save -o webserver.tar webserver:v1

search

  1. Usage:  docker search [OPTIONS] TERM    
  2. Search the Docker Hub for images    
  3.  --automated=false    Only show automated builds    
  4.  --help=false         Print usage    
  5.  --no-trunc=false     Don't truncate output    
  6.  -s, --stars=0        Only displays with at least x stars    

查找镜像。

start

  1. Usage:  docker start [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Start one or more stopped containers    
  3.  -a, --attach=false         Attach STDOUT/STDERR and forward signals    
  4.  --help=false               Print usage    
  5.  -i, --interactive=false    Attach container's STDIN  

启动一个或多个停止的镜像。
启动一个镜像并启动一个交互试的终端。

  1. $ docker start -ia 87cb69be18bb    
  2. root@87cb69be18bb:/# ls

stats

  1. Usage:  docker stats [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics    
  3.  --help=false         Print usage    
  4.  --no-stream=false    Disable streaming stats and only pull the first result    

动态显示容器的资源消耗情况,包括:CPU、内存、网络I/O.

stop

  1. Usage:  docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Stop a running container.    
  3. Sending SIGTERM and then SIGKILL after a grace period    
  4.  --help=false       Print usage    
  5.  -t, --time=10      Seconds to wait for stop before killing it    

停止一个正在运行的容器。

tag

  1. Usage:  docker tag [OPTIONS] IMAGE[:TAG] [REGISTRYHOST/][USERNAME/]NAME[:TAG]    
  2. Tag an image into a repository    
  3.  -f, --force=false    Force    
  4.  --help=false         Print usage    

对repository中的镜像进行重命名。tag后的镜像和原镜像拥有相同的ID。

top

  1. Usage:  docker top [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [ps OPTIONS]    
  2. Display the running processes of a container        

查看容器中正在运行的进程。

  1. $ docker top 87cb69be18bb    
  2. UID      PID    PPID      C        STIME     TTY     TIME            CMD    
  3. root     512    679       0        12:59      pts/3   00:00:00        /bin/bash

unpause

  1. Usage:  docker unpause [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Unpause all processes within a container    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage    

恢复容器内暂停的进程,与pause参数相对应。

version

  1. Usage:  docker version [OPTIONS]    
  2. Show the Docker version information    
  3.  -f, --format=      Format the output using the given go template    
  4.  --help=false       Print usage  

查看docker版本信息

  1. $ docker version    
  2. Client:    
  3. Version:      1.9.1    
  4. API version:  1.21    
  5. Go version:   go1.4.3    
  6. Git commit:   a34a1d5    
  7. Built:        Fri Nov 20 17:56:04 UTC 2015    
  8. OS/Arch:      linux/amd64    
  9. Server:    
  10. Version:      1.9.1    
  11. API version:  1.21    
  12. Go version:   go1.4.3    
  13. Git commit:   a34a1d5    
  14. Built:        Fri Nov 20 17:56:04 UTC 2015    
  15. OS/Arch:      linux/amd64

volume

  1. Usage:  docker volume [OPTIONS] [COMMAND]    
  2. Manage Docker volumes    
  3. Commands:    
  4.  create                   Create a volume    
  5.  inspect                  Return low-level information on a volume    
  6.  ls                       List volumes    
  7.  rm                       Remove a volume

管理docker数据卷.

创建数据卷

  1. Usage:  docker volume create [OPTIONS]    
  2. Create a volume    
  3.  -d, --driver=local    Specify volume driver name    
  4.  --name=           Specify volume name    
  5.  -o, --opt=map[]       Set driver specific options

1.创建一个名为data_v的数据卷

  1. $ docker volume create --name='data_v'    

2.创建完数据卷后,其他容器即可挂载该容器。可用于数据共享。
3.创建一个容器,把名为data_v的数据卷挂载到容器的/data目录

  1. $ docker run -it -v data_v:/data ubuntu:14.04 /bin/bash    

查看数据卷

  1. Usage:  docker volume inspect [OPTIONS] VOLUME [VOLUME...]    
  2. Return low-level information on a volume    
  3.  -f, --format=      Format the output using the given go template  

查看刚刚创建的数据卷

  1. $ docker volume inspect data_v
  2. [    
  3.    {    
  4.        "Name": "data_v",    
  5.        "Driver": "local",    
  6.        "Mountpoint": "/var/lib/docker/volumes/data_v/_data"    
  7.    }    
  8. ]

列出数据卷

  1. Usage:  docker volume ls [OPTIONS]    
  2. List volumes    
  3.  -f, --filter=[]      Provide filter values (i.e. 'dangling=true')    
  4.  -q, --quiet=false    Only display volume names  
  1. $ docker volume ls  
  2. DRIVER              VOLUME NAME
  3. local               04ad14c9c5dbeecd08fe37927024b73efc809da9698eb7000c63e214e929ec15
  4. local               067591aee8ac7ab721de3cba6896c9574703d434604e74f97ff489eecda42777
  5. local               127dcc895206f024f9ece5d88da97db7ea0a9b689f2cf662a38f9baaba441755
  6. local               19fc4d60583be9cda8b0d3f408e64c69efcad90dcab617655b22983588cc8a7c
  7. local               1a1020d07eddf1d796dcef60e89f4a65cfd440c4817ea5d2d9cc608af8b3c139

删除数据卷

  1. Usage:  docker volume rm [OPTIONS] VOLUME [VOLUME...]
  1. $ docker volume rm data_v    

wait

  1. Usage:  docker wait [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]    
  2. Block until a container stops, then print its exit code    
  3.  --help=false       Print usage  

捉容器停止时的退出码。
执行此命令后,该命令会“hang”在当前终端,直到容器停止,此时,会打印出容器的退出码。

未完待续……

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注