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Linux下磁盘IO性能测试工具介绍

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发表于 2016-3-26 01:20:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
开发环境系统配置如下:
Intel SR1625 server, 2 CPU, 32GB内存, 用主板自带卡做了raid1+0,8个7200转SATA硬盘
操作系统是RHEL 5.3 64位
因为物理内存是32GB,因此整个过程都选用了60GB+的数据量来测试,以避免cache的影响


1. 首先用自带的dd命令先测一下, 块大小为8k


dd只能提供一个大概的测试结果,而且是连续IO而不是随机IO


读测试
# time dd if=/dev/sda2 f=/dev/null bs=8k count=8388608
8388608+0 records in
8388608+0 records out
68719476736 bytes (69 GB) copied, 516.547 seconds, 133 MB/s


real    8m36.926s
user    0m0.117s
sys     0m55.216s


写测试
# time dd if=/dev/zero f=/opt/iotest bs=8k count=8388608
8388608+0 records in
8388608+0 records out
68719476736 bytes (69 GB) copied, 888.398 seconds, 77.4 MB/s


real    14m48.743s
user    0m3.678s
sys     2m47.158s


读写测试
# time dd if=/dev/sda2 f=/opt/iotest bs=8k count=8388608
8388608+0 records in
8388608+0 records out
68719476736 bytes (69 GB) copied, 1869.89 seconds, 36.8 MB/s


real    31m10.343s
user    0m2.613s
sys     3m25.548s


2. 接下来用Oracle的orion工具来测一下


解压即可使用
# gzip orion_linux_x86-64.gz


测异步IO时需要libaio库
# export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/lib64
# echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH
:/opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/lib:/usr/lib64


创建配置文件mytest.lun,列出要测试的分区即可. 注意文件名前缀要跟下面的 testname一致
# vi mytest.lun


查看mytest.jun内容
# cat mytest.lun
/dev/sda2


先来个simple test
# ./orion_linux_x86-64 -run simple -testname mytest -num_disks 8


查看测试结果
# cat mytest_20081111_1431_summary.txt
ORION VERSION 11.1.0.7.0


Commandline:
-run simple -testname mytest -num_disks 8


This maps to this test:
Test: mytest
Small IO size: 8 KB
Large IO size: 1024 KB
IO Types: Small Random IOs, Large Random IOs
Simulated Array Type: CONCAT
Write: 0%
Cache Size: Not Entered
Duration for each Data Point: 60 seconds
Small Columns:,      0
Large Columns:,      0,      1,      2,      3,      4,      5,      6,      7,      8,      9,     10,     11,     12,     13,     14,     15,     16
Total Data Points: 38


Name: /dev/sda2 Size: 629143441920
1 FILEs found.


Maximum Large MBPS=56.97 @ Small=0 and Large=7
Maximum Small IOPS=442 @ Small=40 and Large=0
Minimum Small Latency=14.62 @ Small=1 and Large=0


最大MBPS为56.97,最大IOPS为442


再测一下8k随机读操作
# ./orion_linux_x86-64 -run advanced -testname mytest -num_disks 8 -size_small 8 -size_large 8 -type rand &


看看结果
# cat mytest_20081111_1519_summary.txt
ORION VERSION 11.1.0.7.0


Commandline:
-run advanced -testname mytest -num_disks 8 -size_small 8 -size_large 8 -type rand


This maps to this test:
Test: mytest
Small IO size: 8 KB
Large IO size: 8 KB
IO Types: Small Random IOs, Large Random IOs
Simulated Array Type: CONCAT
Write: 0%
Cache Size: Not Entered
Duration for each Data Point: 60 seconds
Small Columns:,      0
Large Columns:,      0,      1,      2,      3,      4,      5,      6,      7,      8,      9,     10,     11,     12,     13,     14,     15,     16
Total Data Points: 38


Name: /dev/sda2 Size: 629143441920
1 FILEs found.


Maximum Large MBPS=3.21 @ Small=0 and Large=13
Maximum Small IOPS=448 @ Small=38 and Large=0
Minimum Small Latency=15.16 @ Small=1 and Large=0


最大MBPS为3.21(这么低??),最大IOPS为448


再测一下1M顺序读操作, 失败了, 原因不明...
# ./orion_linux_x86-64 -run advanced -testname mytest -num_disks 8 -size_small 1024 -size_large 1024 -type seq
ORION: ORacle IO Numbers -- Version 11.1.0.7.0
mytest_20081114_1349
Test will take approximately 73 minutes
Larger caches may take longer


rwbase_run_test: rwbase_reap_req failed
rwbase_run_process: rwbase_run_test failed
rwbase_rwluns: rwbase_run_process failed
orion_warm_cache: Warming cache failed. Continuing


看看结果
# cat mytest_20081111_1620_summary.txt
ORION VERSION 11.1.0.7.0


Commandline:
-run advanced -testname mytest -num_disks 8 -size_small 1024 -size_large 1024 -type seq


This maps to this test:
Test: mytest
Small IO size: 1024 KB
Large IO size: 1024 KB
IO Types: Small Random IOs, Large Sequential Streams
Number of Concurrent IOs Per Stream: 4
Force streams to separate disks: No
Simulated Array Type: CONCAT
Write: 0%
Cache Size: Not Entered
Duration for each Data Point: 60 seconds


没结果,失败


3. 用iozone来测一下


安装
# tar -xvf iozone3_345.tar
# make linux-AMD64


指定64G的文件,只测read/reread和write/rewrite,记录大小从4k-16k.同时生成一个excel文件iozone.wks
# ./iozone -Rab iozone.wks -s64G -i 0 -i 1 -y 4k -q 16k
        Iozone: Performance Test of File I/O
                Version $Revision: 3.345 $
                Compiled for 64 bit mode.
                Build: linux-AMD64


        Contributors:William Norcott, Don Capps, Isom Crawford, Kirby Collins
                     Al Slater, Scott Rhine, Mike Wisner, Ken Goss
                     Steve Landherr, Brad Smith, Mark Kelly, Dr. Alain CYR,
                     Randy Dunlap, Mark Montague, Dan Million, Gavin Brebner,
                     Jean-Marc Zucconi, Jeff Blomberg, Benny Halevy, Dave Boone,
                     Erik Habbinga, Kris Strecker, Walter Wong, Joshua Root,
                     Fabrice Bacchella, Zhenghua Xue, Qin Li.


        Run began: Tue Nov 11 10:23:25 2008


        Excel chart generation enabled
        Auto Mode
        File size set to 67108864 KB
        Using Minimum Record Size 4 KB
        Using Maximum Record Size 16 KB
        Command line used: ./iozone -Rab iozone.wks -s64G -i 0 -i 1 -y 4k -q 16k
        Output is in Kbytes/sec
        Time Resolution = 0.000001 seconds.
        Processor cache size set to 1024 Kbytes.
        Processor cache line size set to 32 bytes.
        File stride size set to 17 * record size.
                                                            random  random    bkwd   record   stride                                 
              KB  reclen   write rewrite    read    reread    read   write    read  rewrite     read   fwrite frewrite   fread  freread
        67108864       4   72882   69470   104898   125512
        67108864       8   72083   69256   133689   109061
        67108864      16   73375   69155   142019   116034


iozone test complete.
Excel output is below:


"Writer report"
        "4"  "8"  "16"
"67108864"   72882  72083  73375


"Re-writer report"
        "4"  "8"  "16"
"67108864"   69470  69256  69155


"Reader report"
        "4"  "8"  "16"
"67108864"   104898  133689  142019


"Re-Reader report"
        "4"  "8"  "16"
"67108864"   125512  109061  116034


可以看到,8k的写是72M/s左右,读是133M/s左右,跟dd的结果比较接近


测一下64G文件8k随机读写
# ./iozone -Rab iozone.wks -s64G -i 2 -y 8k -q 8k
        Iozone: Performance Test of File I/O
                Version $Revision: 3.345 $
                Compiled for 64 bit mode.
                Build: linux-AMD64


        Contributors:William Norcott, Don Capps, Isom Crawford, Kirby Collins
                     Al Slater, Scott Rhine, Mike Wisner, Ken Goss
                     Steve Landherr, Brad Smith, Mark Kelly, Dr. Alain CYR,
                     Randy Dunlap, Mark Montague, Dan Million, Gavin Brebner,
                     Jean-Marc Zucconi, Jeff Blomberg, Benny Halevy, Dave Boone,
                     Erik Habbinga, Kris Strecker, Walter Wong, Joshua Root,
                     Fabrice Bacchella, Zhenghua Xue, Qin Li.


        Run began: Fri Nov 14 15:52:01 2008


        Excel chart generation enabled
        Auto Mode
        File size set to 67108864 KB
        Using Minimum Record Size 8 KB
        Using Maximum Record Size 8 KB
        Command line used: ./iozone -Rab iozone.wks -s64G -i 2 -y 8k -q 8k
        Output is in Kbytes/sec
        Time Resolution = 0.000001 seconds.
        Processor cache size set to 1024 Kbytes.
        Processor cache line size set to 32 bytes.
        File stride size set to 17 * record size.
                                                            random  random    bkwd   record   stride                                 
              KB  reclen   write rewrite    read    reread    read   write    read  rewrite     read   fwrite frewrite   fread  freread
        67108864       8
Error reading block at 6501007360
read: Success


出错了(??)


4. 最后用bonnie++测一下


安装
# export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/lib64
# ./configure
# make
# make install


开始测试,默认文件大小是内存的2倍
# bonnie++ -d /opt/IOTest/ -m sva17 -u root
Using uid:0, gid:0.
Writing with putc()...done
Writing intelligently...done
Rewriting...done
Reading with getc()...done
Reading intelligently...done
start 'em...done...done...done...
Create files in sequential order...done.
Stat files in sequential order...done.
Delete files in sequential order...done.
Create files in random order...done.
Stat files in random order...done.
Delete files in random order...done.
Version 1.03e       ------Sequential Output------ --Sequential Input- --Random-
                    -Per Chr- --Block-- -Rewrite- -Per Chr- --Block-- --Seeks--
Machine        Size K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP  /sec %CP
sva17           63G 52391  84 35222   7 34323   6 56362  88 131568  10 176.7   0
                    ------Sequential Create------ --------Random Create--------
                    -Create-- --Read--- -Delete-- -Create-- --Read--- -Delete--
              files  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP
                 16 +++++ +++ +++++ +++ +++++ +++ +++++ +++ +++++ +++ +++++ +++
sva17,63G,52391,84,35222,7,34323,6,56362,88,131568,10,176.7,0,16,+++++,+++,+++++,+++,+++++,+++,+++++,+++,+++++,+++,+++++,+++


顺序写: 按字符是52391KB/s,CPU占用率84%;按块是35222KB/s,CPU占用率7%
顺序读: 按字符是56362KB/s, CPU占用率88%;按块是131568KB/s,CPU占用率10%
随机读写: 176.7次/s,CPU占用率0%
后两项全是++ (没结果?)


结论:不同测试工具构建出来的测试环境不同,侧重点也不一样,得到的结果可能相差比较大。


MBPS:
dd和iozone比较接近,读写分别是130+和70+。
orion读57左右,写没测(会删掉分区内所有文件!)
bonnie++按块读是130左右,写是35左右;按字符读是56左右,写是52左右
IOPS:
dd 无结果
orion 440左右(只读)
iozone 出错
bonnie++ 176.7 (读写)
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